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X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. Each element present in a sample emits its own unique fluorescent x-ray energy spectrum. The emitted X-rays are collected by scintillations counters, semiconductor (solid-state) detectors, charge coupled devices (CCD), or other detectors.   By simultaneously measuring the fluorescent energy emitted by elements in the sample, XRF analyzers can determine the elements present in the sample as each element has a characteristic energy associated with its fluoresced X-rays.  The relative quantity of elements can also be determined by XRF.  The technique is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis.  It has found particular usein the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics and building materials, geochemistry, mining, forensic science and archaeology. XRF instrumentation is available in multiple configurations including benchtop, portable, and hand-held models.  XRF is a mature technique.  Energy and wavelength dispersive instrument are available.    Instruments vary broadly in price from approximately $20,000 up to $100,000.